When the Streets Had no Names

When the Streets Had no Names

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Madrid’s iconic street tiles reflect the city’s rich history

The beautiful tiled street signs you find all over central Madrid are one of the city’s most distinctive features and reproductions of them are sold by the bucket-load to tourists looking to take some souvenir of their stay back with them. But did you know that these iconic tiles only date as far back as the 1990s? What might surprise you even more is that the streets themselves were only officially baptised in the 19th century. Before then, besides main thoroughfares like Calle de Alcalá, Calle del Caballero de Gracia or Calle de la Montera, the streets were known only by the nicknames given to them by locals. While this might seem an absurd state of affairs, given the political controversy some of the official names have sparked, it could be argued that the city was better off without them.

When Guilds Ruled the Streets

Sign of CALLE DE LA SAL (street) in Centro district in Madrid (Spain).
Back when the commercial life of the city was run by guilds, salt was sold on this street

Our story begins when Madrid was named the capital of Spain back in 1561 and to some extent medieval traditions still reigned. To support the court, a huge influx of artisans descended on the town and set up shop in the narrow streets surrounding the palace (then still the Alcazar built by Mohammed I of Cordoba back in the 9th century). As was the custom at that time, artisans formed guilds, each of which congregated in certain districts. If you were after leather, for instance, you’d head to the Ribera de Curtidores, or if you wanted some buttons for your elegant threads, you’d go to the Calle de Botoneras. These weren’t the official names of the streets of course, but more or less you could navigate the city in reference to whatever trade was plied in any particular area.

A Taxing Problem

While most citizens got by pretty well with this system, it wasn’t much help to the court when it came to collecting property taxes. Not only was the city a warren of narrow medieval streets, it was also filled with Casas a la Malicia, trick houses that had been specifically built to deceive the taxman. It was only under the reign of the ever capable Charles III in the 18th century that an attempt to bring order to Madrid’s muddled streets got underway. A census was carried out and all properties inspected, so that now each block, or manzana, was marked with a ceramic tile that bore its official General de la Regalía de Aposento (Royal tax code) number. If you’re in the centre of the city, you can take a look up and see them still there on many street corners.

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This 18th century sign is a reminder of a time when the streets were not named, but the blocks, or manzanas, were

In theory, these tiles would not only help the taxman do his job, but would also enable postmen to do theirs better. In practise, as the city grew and buildings were bulldozed, while others had extensions built on them, the taxmen and postal workers found themselves in even more of a muddle, while citizens continued to address letters as before, e.g. The small house by Church X next to the bakery.

Finally, a System that Makes Sense

It was only in the 19th century when the Marqués de Pontejos became mayor that streets got their official names. In consultation with Ramón de Mesonero Romanos, Pontejos named streets after the old guilds, famous historical figures or events; Calle de Doctor Velasco, for instance after the founder of Madrid’s Museum of Anthropology, or Plaza Dos de Mayo, which commemorates the uprising against the French. As the streets got their names, houses were numbered too on a system which survives today, with the lowest numbers on the end closest to Sol, even numbers on the right, odd on the left.

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Former mayor, the Marqués de Pontejos, created Madrid’s current postal system

Undesirable Associations

But, of course, our story does not stop there, because while the numbering system remained the same, the street names did not. The first wave of changes came after 1898 when Spain lost vast swathes of its empire. Thus, a street named after the Philippines became known as Calle de Vara del Rey and with the loss of Cuba, Calle Havana was renamed Eloy Gonzalo. Then came the Second Republic, during which time names related to the monarchy were removed and replaced with those of prominent socialists, like José Nakens. When the Civil War began, religious street names came under fire as the Catholic church declared itself in favour of Franco’s rebel army. The names of fallen Republican soldiers then went up briefly, until Franco came to power and they were consigned to obscurity. Then, of course, the names of prominent fascists were celebrated. In this way Gran Via became Avenida de José Antonio after Primo de Rivera, the founder of the Falange party, and Paseo de la Castellana became Avenida del Generalísimo after Franco himself.

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A birth certificate with the name Libertad crossed out

Sadly, it wasn’t only street names that were changed during this period, parents were forced to change the names of children in accordance with an order from the Ministry of Justice in favour of religious names, names like Libertad (liberty), for instance, were now considered beyond the pale, while Maria trended to a frightening degree (I’m sure you’ve noticed that women of a certain age all seem to be called Maria something-or-other).

After the transition to democracy, when Tierno Galvin became mayor of Madrid, 26 names with fascist associations were changed, with a further slew of changes coming more recently as Manuela Carmena put into effect the Ley de la Memoria Historica. Thus, we now have very modern names like the Plaza de la Memoria Trans, in memory of trans victims of violence or the Plaza de Nelson Mandela in Lavapiés. The political football of course gets kicked both ways and with a new right wing mayor it’s unlikely any more names with fascist links will be removed. Moscardó, an area close to where I live, for instance continues to be named after General José Moscardó Ituarte. Lets hope the new government don’t go so far as to follow the bizarre example set by former mayor Ana Botella, who christened one square after Margaret Thatcher!

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This street has a gruesome story attached to it

As you can see, the naming of Madrid’s streets reflects the city’s own turbulent history and is likely to continue to be a controversial topic. But I think we can all agree on a fondness for Alfredo Ruiz de Luna González‘s gorgeous tiles that are not only aesthetically charming, but also tell us something about the quirky history of our city’s streets. My favourite, for instance, is the Calle de la Cabeza, which depicts the bloodied head of a priest who, legend has it, was murdered for his fortune by his Portuguese servant. It’s said that years after the terrible deed was done, this servant was bringing a sheep’s head home concealed beneath his cloak from the nearby slaughterhouse. On seeing the trail of blood, a watchman confronted the murderer who pulled out his dinner only to discover that it had been transformed into the head of his victim!

I could go on, because there are countless legends associated with Madrid’s streets, but I’d love to hear from you. Which are your favourite street names and why?

 

 

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